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Per - and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS )

Why Integral for my PFAS needs

Our team is at the forefront of technical and regulatory PFAS developments. Our experts guide you through the evolving PFAS regulatory landscape and evaluate associated risks. We conduct environmental sampling, perform site investigations, assess fate and transport, develop conceptual site models, perform advanced forensics, evaluate toxicity and associated risk, engineer remediation solutions, assist with litigation, and help you develop clear and concise communication materials that meet your technical, regulatory, legal, and stakeholder needs.

More than 10 years of PFAS Project Experience

50+ PFAS-specific projects
in the last 5 years

More than 25 clients served

PFAS Regulatory Criteria
Drinking Water, Groundwater, Surface Water, Fish Tissue, and Soil

Welcome to Integral’s State-by-State PFAS Regulatory Criteria Map.  We developed these interactive map resources as an easy-to-use PFAS regulatory reference that is current, complete, and supported by the literature. Although other resources exist, we are not aware of any that consistently meet these criteria. The maps are a community resource. Feel free to cite them, as needed. Our goal is to keep them current, and we very much welcome your input. In fact, we are counting on it. Sign up here to be notified when a new map goes live. Please email us if we have missed something or if there is anything we can help with regarding PFAS regulations.

We hope these maps are useful and look forward to hearing from you.

(Updated 3/20/2023)

What Are PFAS Chemicals?

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of widely used chemicals that are pervasive and persistent in the environment. PFAS can be broadly classified as polymers and non-polymers. Most environmental investigations focus on non-polymer PFAS, which are primarily manufactured through two processes, electrochemical fluorination (ECF) and telomerization.

Differences between and within the ECF and telomerization processes lend distinguishing characteristics to the resulting PFAS found in the environment. Prior to 2000, longer carbon chain PFAS (e.g., PFCAs with seven or more fluorinated carbons, PFSAs with six or more fluorinated carbons) dominated the industry, with a transition from 2000 to 2015 to shorter chain and alternate structures. Many PFAS compounds released to the environment have complex structures that can degrade over time to stable sulfonate (e.g., PFOS) and carboxylate forms (e.g., PFOA). PFAS may be released to and travel through the environment in a variety of ways. The graphic below illustrates some of the ways that people may come into contact with PFAS. Click on each red dot to learn more about each pathway.

How Does PFAS Impact Us?


  • Liability from products and releases
  • Treatment of effluent
  • Specialized disposal
  • Worker health and safety
  • Federal and state regulatory compliance
Integral Services:

Air Pollution

  • Airborne transport and deposition
  • Regulatory compliance
  • Liability for investigation, remediation and damages
Integral Services:

Firefighting Foam (aqueous film-forming foam, or AFFF)

  • Regulatory compliance
  • Soil, sediment, and groundwater contamination resulting from training and firefighting
  • Exposure of firefighters and consumers of drinking water
  • Liability for investigation, remediation, and damages
Integral Services

Disposal / BioSolids

  • Soil, crop, and Groundwater Contamination
  • Federal and state regulatory compliance
  • Risks to human health and livestock
Integral Services

Consumer Products

  • Consumer pressure and/or exposures
  • Marketing and product liability claims
  • Emissions during manufacture and/or consumer use
  • Bulk waste  disposal
  • Federal and state regulatory requirements
  • Shareholder and retailer activism
  • Public relations
Integral Services

Water Treatment

  • Environmental contamination
  • Water quality
  • Human Health Risks
  • Federal and state regulatory compliance
  • Treatment costs
Integral Services

Uptake by Fish and Wildlife

  • Human health and ecological risks
  • Natural resource damages
Integral Services


  • Current applicable regulations and regulatory process
  • Analytical testing capabilities
  • Federal and state regulatory compliance
  • Potential liability
Integral Services


  • Contamination of irrigation water
  • Contamination of soil, crops, and groundwater
Integral Services:


  • Federal and state regulatory compliance
  • Human health risks
  • Water treatment and monitoring
  • Biomonitoring
  • Natural resource damages
Integral Services


  • Ecological and human health risks
  • Property value
  • Litigation
  • Federal and state regulatory compliance
Integral Services

PFAS Case Studies

Human Health Risk Characterization of PFAS Chemicals at a Superfund Site

Close up of a woman hand filling a glass of water directly from the tap. High resolution 42Mp indoors digital capture taken with SONY A7rII and Zeiss Batis 25mm F2.0 lens

Regulatory Toxicology Evaluations for PFAS

Sample water from the river for analysis. Hand in glove holding a test tube

PFAS Detected in Drinking Water Supply

Toxicology reviews

Natural Resource Damage Assessment of PFAS

Biological assessment

How We Help Our Clients

Regulatory Support

Federal and state regulations are evolving. Many states have no PFAS regulation, while others have moved ahead with a variety of enforceable and non-enforceable regulatory criteria reflecting different interpretations of risk. For the most up-to-date state-level PFAS regulatory criteria, please see our map above. We help our clients navigate this mix of regulations and complexity of environmental media and chemicals. We take the time to track and understand both existing and evolving regulations, what they mean for different clients, and how they can be applied to a wide range of technical evaluations to support risk management.

Site Investigation

Reaching the highest value conclusions requires asking the right questions. We foster interdisciplinary and collaborative processes that appropriately identify key issues and data gaps that need resolution. Our team then designs and delivers efficient, science-based, multimedia environmental investigations that delineate the extent of PFAS in the environment and support risk evaluations and cost‑effective remediation strategies. We provide solutions that are protective, sustainable, and consistent with regulatory, client, and other stakeholder needs.

Fate & Transport Modeling

The purpose of fate & transport modeling is to better understand the sources, extent, and magnitude of PFAS and other chemicals in the environment, evaluate changes over time, and support decision-making. We efficiently develop dynamic conceptual site models by leveraging site-specific data and the collective experience of project teams to describe the physical, chemical, and biological processes governing PFAS behavior and fate. We then answer key conceptual site model questions in support of site investigation, data gaps resolution, water supply evaluation, remedial design, remedy performance evaluation, and litigation support.


Integral’s deep understanding of the evolution of PFAS manufacturing, commercial formulations, chemistry, and use over time provides a broad foundation for developing unique insights into our client’s issues and concerns. Forensic investigations vary in complexity, but always benefit from our multidisciplinary perspective that considers the original release mechanisms, chemical alterations in the environment, and fate and transport through environmental media and that often utilizes advanced statistical techniques. Our work provides our clients with an understanding of the probable sources in play at a site, the contributions of PFAS from each source, and any limitations in the data used to support these conclusions.

Litigation Support & Expert Testimony

We assist our clients in PFAS litigation by providing consulting and testifying experts who have outstanding scientific experience and academic and professional credentials. Integral’s litigation support team assists our clients by identifying and gathering available facts and information to prepare compelling arguments and damage assessments to support arbitration, reach settlement, and develop trial testimony, when needed. We skillfully communicate complex technical information in understandable narratives in expert reports, deposition, affidavits, and trial testimony.

Remediation & Water Treatment

Our clients rely on our expertise in remediating contaminated soil, sediment, and surface- and groundwater. Applying our extensive remediation experience, we complete thorough feasibility studies, engineering evaluations, pre-design studies, and cost analyses to support a cost-effective overall remedial solution. These efforts build on and inform conceptual site models that guide application of effective remediation technologies and overall liability reduction. We then complete remedial design and implementation serving as the engineer-of-record, owner’s representative, and/or construction manager, as needed.

Toxicology & Risk Assessment

We take the necessary steps to accurately understand the risks in unique environments and evaluate them based on compound- or PFAS-specific hazards and defaults or customized exposure considerations. We produce more than a scientific report—we help our clients understand what the assessment means to them and their goals. We have unique experience assessing human health risk related to emerging contaminants, including design and data analysis of human serum biomonitoring studies and assessment of site-specific exposure compared to national baseline levels. Our key staff are nationally known for their work in the development of emerging contaminant regulatory toxicity standards and regulatory programs, including PFAS, 1,4-dioxane and 1,2,3-TCP. We develop assessments that are specific to our clients’ business needs and to applicable regulations.

Water Supply Evaluation

Drinking water sources are often highly complex systems involving multiple parties and varying scenarios. Our industrial, municipality, and private clients rely on us to help identify risks and mitigation measures related to PFAS for existing or planned water supplies. Integral’s professional engineers and scientists complete pre-design, design, and cost estimating activities to evaluate water supply and storage options. We supplement our engineering capabilities with our toxicology, regulatory, risk communication, hydraulic (fate and transport) modeling, and other expertise to complete holistic evaluations of both PFAS and water supply issues.

Natural Resource Damages Assessment

Our clients turn to us for support with natural resource damage claims because we work to understand the complete picture. We have substantial experience preparing defensible strategies for all phases of the natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) process—from developing a technically sound basis for evaluating injury, causation, and baseline, to quantifying losses, prioritizing compensatory restoration projects, and assisting with cooperative assessments.

Product Stewardship

We support manufacturers of PFAS and PFAS-enabled technology in evaluating and communicating the safety of their products to regulators, academia, the scientific community, and the general public. Our staff assist with product and chemical registrations in the North American and European Union regulatory arenas, as well as with the identification of key toxicological data gaps and technical issues related to product safety and potential use or end of lifecycle environmental concerns.

Risk Communication

PFAS risk communication can be particularly challenging when dealing with science that is rapidly evolving. We help clients communicate potential risks to human health and the environment to facilitate community participation and decision-making. Many aspects of assessment, evaluation, and remediation rely on the ability to effectively communicate the science and risks in a way that promotes progress toward a resolution. We not only communicate the current science but we understand the role science plays in helping all parties move forward.

Monthly PFAS Newsletter

This one-of-a-kind monthly update covers the latest information on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a class of chemicals found worldwide that are of emerging concern. Our scientists do the research and aggregate the peer-reviewed scientific literature published in a given month related to PFAS chemicals and deliver it in a single source document. The PFAS Updates also includes state and federal regulations and major market shifts as it pertains to industry.

This service is specifically targeted to scientists, engineers, risk managers, and attorneys who need to stay abreast of current science and regulatory developments. A single subscription provides access to the newsletter and Integral’s staff for your entire organization. For more information on the subscription, contact Kristian Fried, Ph.D., at

Integral PFAS Consultants

Keith P. Brodock, P.E., P.P.

Sean Culkin, P.G., C.H.G

R. Jeffrey Davis, P.E., CGWP

Bridgette R. DeShields

Judi L. Durda

Avram Frankel, P.E.

Kristian Fried, Ph.D., Dr. rer. nat., DABT, ERT

John R. Griffin

Steven Helgen

Miranda Henning

Craig Hutchings

Sean Kosinski, P.Hg.

Michael J. Martin, P.E.

Mala Pattanayek

Erin Palko, P.G., LSRP

Theodore D. Tomasi

Logan Uselman, Ph.D.

Morgan Willming, Ph.D.

R. Jeffrey Davis, P.E., CGWP

Theodore D. Tomasi

Toxicology & Risk Assessment