Russell E. Keenan, Ph.D.
Vice President
Russell E. Keenan, Ph.D.'s headshot

Dr. Russell Keenan is a vice president and principal toxicologist at Integral Consulting with 30 years of experience specializing in chemical risk assessment and toxicology. Much of his work focuses on assessing the potential human health and ecological risks of PCBs, dioxins, furans, mercury, copper, and chromium, and on developing time-dependent probabilistic risk assessment methods. Over the past 30 years, he has directed a team of scientists in evaluating the human health and ecological risks associated with chemical exposures at a number of sites involving multiple exposure pathways. Many of the more complex sites are associated with aquatic environments, including the Hudson, Housatonic, Fox, Penobscot, Woonasquatucket, Columbia, Hackensack, and Passaic rivers. Dr. Keenan has conducted more than 200 human health and wildlife risk assessments for regulated sites and has evaluated risks associated with exposure to conventional and radioactive residuals from former mining operations. He represents clients on multi-stakeholder technical and steering committees; provides technical expertise and support in regulatory negotiations; and provides strategic consultation on CERCLA and RCRA risks, liability issues, and remedy selection.

Dr. Keenan has testified as an expert in several U.S. District Court jurisdictions and before U.S. Congressional panels and state and federal agencies during regulatory proceedings on environmental issues. Among other accomplishments, this work has led to the establishment of EPA-approved alternative ambient water quality criteria in nine states. He served as co-investigator of state and regional angler surveys used by EPA as key studies in evaluating exposures through fish ingestion. Dr. Keenan also managed the first private sector Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with EPA in the field of regulatory toxicology and risk assessment, which developed probabilistic models for characterizing the uncertainty in reference dose estimates used in noncancer risk assessment. Subsequently, he served as one of eight independent experts in the congressionally mandated review of EPA’s process for handling toxicological uncertainty in its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). He has also served on chemical-specific expert review panels for the nonprofit organization Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA). Dr. Keenan has authored more than 90 publications in his field. He is an active member in the Society of Toxicology, from which he received two best paper awards; serves on the Advisory Board to the Association for Environmental Health and Sciences Foundation; and is a member of the Society for Risk Analysis.