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Our litigation support staff have outstanding academic, professional, and scientific credentials to provide attorneys with sound technical and scientific foundations for case preparation.  We go beyond simply repeating the facts—we deliver context and insight to the questions at hand and present our findings in a clear and understandable way.


Our team has experience in multifaceted, high-stakes toxic tort litigation for a wide range of legacy and emerging contaminants.  From source and transport to exposure and effects, we utilize our skills and experience to build scientifically based expert opinions.  We combine our technical acumen with an exceptional ability to convey highly technical, scientific opinions in a narrative that is understandable by judge and jury.

Risk Assessment | Toxicology | Forensics | Fate and Transport | PCBs | Dioxin | PFAS | Emerging Contaminants | Pesticides | Mercury


Identifying contaminant sources and the timing of their release is an important factor in understanding chemical fate and transport, assessing remedial actions, and resolving complex questions concerning contribution, source attribution, and cost allocation.  Our forensic specialists excel at deconstructing the evidence and building fact-based cases to address these important issues.  With our subject matter expertise and innate multidisciplinary perspective, we provide fresh insights that are robust, credible, and compelling.  

Fingerprinting | Fate and Transport | Principal Component Analysis | Unmixing


Issues of divisibility, contribution, cost recovery, and allocation frequently arise when addressing response costs at multiparty environmental sites.  We employ scientifically defensible technical analyses to support divisibility, and develop equitable allocation or apportionment plans.  By analyzing the facts related to source, release, and fate along with information on operational history and/or use, we build robust allocation approaches.

Apportionment | Allocation | Cost Model

engineering & construction

We apply our extensive experience in engineering design and construction to prepare technical opinions for environmental engineering and construction projects.  By evaluating the circumstances surrounding complicated engineering design and construction matters—including delays and scheduling, defects, and the intricacies of contracting—we provide clear, convincing, and objective technical opinions.

Construction Claims | Insurance Claims | Remediation Implementation

natural Resource damage claims

Our clients turn to us for support with natural resource damage claims.  We have substantial experience preparing defensible strategies for all phases of the natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) process—from developing a technically sound basis for evaluating injury, causation, and baseline, to quantifying losses and assisting with cooperative assessments.  Our NRDA services are fully integrated with our forensic practice so we can assist in allocation matters as they arise.

NRDA | Cooperative Assessment

product defense

We help our clients navigate the complex world of product defense.  From responding to legal claims to addressing regulatory compliance issues related to product safety, we conduct analyses that cover issues of exposure, toxicity, risk, chemistry, and compliance.  We provide consulting and testimony support for matters related to current product lines as well as historically distributed products and chemicals.

Risk Assessment | Toxicology | Exposure Assessment | Compliance | Proposition 65 | PFAS


related case studies

recent news and articles

Latest Edition of Integral’s Sediment Newsletter: The Benthic Zone

Cleanup and protection of waterways is facing ever-expanding challenges, ranging from emerging contaminants to the assessment of conditions in real time, to untangling complex histories.

The Benthic Zone newsletter is the place where Integral scientists and engineers share their expertise, running the gamut of topics related to investigation, forensic evaluation, modeling, and remediation of contaminated sediments. Take a look under the water with us.

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